Tetiana Hrudevich, Luidmila Shkira
Head of the Research Sector «Museum «Postal Station» of the National Historical and Ethnographical Reserve «Pereyaslav».
Head of the Research Department «Museum of the Land Transport of the Middle Dnieper» of the National Historical and Ethnographic Reserve «Pereyaslav».
HORSE HARNESSES AND RIG OF THE END OF XIX BEG. XX CENTURY IN FUNDS OF NATIONAL HISTORICAL AND ETHNOGRAPHICAL RESERVE «PEREYASLAV» BY I. CHORNYI
Abstract. The purpose of the study of this article is to highlight the history of the discovery of horse harnesses and rig at the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and their characteristics. That objects belonged to Chorniyfamily from Kiev and were transferred in 1979 to create an exposition of museums. Presently, the items of horse harnesses and harnesses from the stock collection NHER «Pereyaslav» are exhibited in the museums «Postal Station», «Museum of the National Land Transport of the Middle Dnieper».These museums are located on the territory of the first Museum of Folk Architecture and Life of the Middle Dnieper, established in 1964 in Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi city and is the part of the National Historical and Ethnographic Reserve «Pereyaslav». This collection has been gathering for decades. Mikhail Zham (1927–2002) was an ideological inspiration and active collector of horse harness and rigs. Among the large number of horse ruminant, which is in the exposition of museums, there are 25 harnesses and rigsof I. Chorniy. At the beginning of the twentieth century Ivan Chorny, like his father was. I. Chorny, was engaged in camping, had a camping and caravan artillery, a large collection of vehicles, horse harnesses and rigs.
Horse rigs – a collection of items for harness, as well as a way to harness them. Rigs should be distinguished from harness, which is a more general term and includes both objects and accessories for harnessing, and for hanging horses and other animals (for horseback riding, or the use of pets). Among the items (harnesses and rigs) belonging to the Black family are:
Yoke – a cervical part of a horse's rigs, through which the weight of the transported cargo is transmitted to the horse's neck. There are four in their collection.
The arc is a part of a horse's rigs from a bent trunk of a tree, which serves to attach a hawk (one of the two poles, attached to the ends of the front of the car's vehicle) to the yoke. There are three of them.
Squares – a long belt, a rope, etc., by which horses are ruled, fixed on both sides to the bridle. The stock collection consists of four units of the box.
Bridle («knot») – a piece of harness, which is worn on the animal's head to control it. The collection consists of five pieces of bridles.
Breast-bandis a long belt that covers the horse's body and holds the band from slipping around the neck, for example, during descent from the mountain, braking. The collection has four units.
Сherezsidelko- a strap that passes through a saddle from one hole to the other, supporting them.
Saddle – a part of the rig, in the form of a pillow, which is enclosed under the cherezsidelko. Serves to convey force on the back of a horse. There are 3 of them in collection.
Attention is focused on the features of manufacturing, material, technology, and the analysis of harnesses and rigs were made. Also, authors focus on the fact that, depending on the used harness, rigs are divided into: «holobelʹno-postoronkovyy» harness, sidewalk harness; a combined harness.
An overview of the declared assembly, analysis of the species, typological, structural features of the horse harness, the comparison of these elements, shows that the samples presented in it are the same type of design, material, technology and characteristic of the entire territory of Ukraine. At the same time, some of them are distinguished by the original artistic decoration, which is a manifestation of the preferences and artistic tastes of the masters who made them. The horse harness and rigs of Chorniy family organically complements the structure and subjects of the exposition of the Museum of National Land Transport and the Museum «Postal Station» of the National Historical and Ethnographic Reserve «Pereyaslav».
Key words: Horse harnesses and rig, collection, harness, remanent.
Received by the editorial board: 1.04.2019
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