Candidate of Historical Sciences, docent, Docent of the Department of Modern History of Ukraine, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.
BELARUSIAN FACTOR IN THE ACTIVITIES OF THE PARTIZAN ASSOCIATION OF SUMY (1941‑1944)
Abstract. The purpose of the article is to study the Belarusian factor in the activity of one of the largest in the number and the most diverse in national composition partisan formation of the period of the Second World War ‑ the Sumy partisan union (the 1st Ukrainian Partisan Division named after the Hero of the Soviet Union, S. A. Kovpak).
First of all, the relevance of the problem is determined, the state of study of the history of the Soviet partisan resistance movement during the Second World War in general and its certain aspects in particular. It is emphasized on the multinational personnel as a characteristic feature of the Soviet partisan formations of Ukraine.
During the study of the problem, the basic source was a complex of documents from the fund of the 1st Ukrainian Partisan Division named after twice Hero of the Soviet Union S. A. Kovpak (Sumy Partisan Union), which is kept in the Central State Archives of Public Associations of Ukraine.
Using the historical method, the general scientific methods of comparison, analysis, synthesis, on the basis of archival sources, memoirs and scientific works, shows the participation of citizens of Belarusian nationality in the personnel of the compound (divisions), traces the dynamics of the number of Belarusians, determines their place and correlation with other nationalities.
It is proved that from the first days of the creation of this unit as a partisan detachment in September 1941 and till disbandment as a guerrilla division in November 1944, the fighters of Belarusian nationality ranked third place in its staff.
The path of passing and location of the connection (division) on the territory of Byelorussia is traced. It was determined that its combat, sabotage and intelligence activities were in the Gomel, Pinsk and Polissya regions. It was associated mostly with raids on the territory of the Right Bank and Western Ukraine.
The chronological boundaries of the activity of the Sumy partisan compound (the 1st Ukrainian Partisan Division named after the Hero of the Soviet Union S. A. Kovpak) on the territory of Belarus cover the period from November 1942 till July 1944, with interruptions. Combat operations of the union (division) on the territory of Belarus are revealed, in particular, the defeat of hostile garrisons and the capture of settlements. Sabotage activity on main railways and on highways was investigated.
The presence of the union (division) on the territory of Byelorussia during the period of preparation for the exit to the Carpathian raid in June 1943 and after the returning from the Lviv-Warsaw raid in April 1944 are highlighted. Examples of the attitude of the local population towards the partisans of the Sumy Union, facts of looting of individual fighters and so on. The main aspects of the relationship between Ukrainian partisans and local partisan groups are also described. The issue of establishing a connection between the Sumy partisan union and local Belarusian partisan detachments and brigades is solved.
The example of obtaining the experience of combat, sabotage and reconnaissance activities of the Yale Partisan Detachment during the stay of the Sumy Partisan Connection at the end of 1942 – early 1943 is given. The conduction of joint military operations and the exchange of intelligence data gained by the Ukrainian and Belarusian partisans is shown. According to archival documents, local guerrilla formations of Belarus were identified, with which connection (division) communications were established, joint hostilities and sabotage on hostile communications were conducted, intelligence was exchanged, sending of wounded guerrillas to the Soviet rear was ensured, etc.
The problems connected with the replenishment of the personnel of the union (division) at the expense of the local population, as well as the transition of the fighters of the Belarusian units were highlighted. Some contradictions were mentioned which arose between the Ukrainian and Belarusian partisans, the dissatisfaction of the Sumy guerrilla unit command with the uneven material supply of Ukrainian and Belarusian partisans from the Soviet rear, the combat and sabotage activity of the Belarusian formations, etc.
According to the results of the study of the problem, a considerable place of the Belarusian factor in the activities of the Sumy partisan compound during the entire period of its existence from September 1941 to November 1944 has been proven.
Keywords: Second World War, partisan resistance movement, Sumy partisan union, Belarusian partisans.
Received by the editorial board: 5.04.2019
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