The genealogist, founder of the site «Devoted to students of gymnasiun in Glukhov...», co-founder of genealogian site «Jewish roots», founder and manager/leader of the project «The night of the Glukhov's history».
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL IMPORTANCE OF GRAVESTONES OF THE JEWISH CEMETERY OF GLUKHOV TOWN
Abstract. In 2018 the author of this article carried out field works at the Jewish cemetery of Glukhov town which consisted of searching of the remained gravestones, including basis fragments and also the whole monuments or their parts which went deeply to the ground and grassed. Cleaning and photofixing of all found objects were made. On the basis of these field works, the author of the article revealed 1040 objects that are in varying degrees of preservation. From them 438 objects are completely preserved gravestoness, which are among the historical burials and date from the beginning of the XIX century - 1930 year. Based on a number of works on the history of Glukhov town and the local Jewish community, as well as Jewish necropolis, ethnography, linguistics and epigraphy, the author of the article conducted (based on general scientific methods and a special method - identification) a comprehensive study of the Jewish cemetery of Glukhov and its gravestones as objects of cultural heritage. The purpose of this publication is to present the results of this research.
Absolutely all these monuments of Glukhow Jewish cemetery can serve as a source of genealogical information and are of interest to genealogical researchers and descendants searching for the graves of their ancestors, and also, due to their concentration, can serve as invaluable material for various studies in the field of necropolis, socio-demographic and sanitary - municipal history.
At the same time, the epitaphs of the surviving ancient Jewish gravstones are the specific literary phenomenon, occupying an intermediate position between traditional rabbinic and folk literature and culture. During this research, 2 monuments which epitaphs have literary value were revealed. These are the gravestones of the Jewish writer, publicist and the teacher Lazar Davidovich Tsveyfel and the merchant of the 2nd guild, the public official of Glukhov City Council, the juror of Glukhov district Zalman Ariev Esmansky. In addition, the gravestone inscriptions of these monuments have value in terms of the totality of the personalities of the deceased and the epitaphs on their gravestones.
The carved decor of the gravestones of Glukhov Jewish cemetery is an example of original folk decorative and applied art, it has a peculiar style, figurative language and has artistic value. Of the total number of tombstones of Glukhov Jewish cemetery, 46 steles have ornaments that are distinguished by a complex, time-consuming development of carving and artistic taste.These monuments are of interest for various art criticism studies and have significance as exhibits demonstrating the most interesting elements of the art of decorative carving of gravestones, its connection with the culture and religion of the Jewish people and the influence of local factors on this type of decorative and applied art.
As a historical source, the gravestones of Glukhov Jewish cemetery are confirmed by the well-known historical events of that time - the Jewish riots in Glukhov and the influx of refugees in the period 1914-1916. Of particular interest for researches are data on a concrete personnel. At the Jewish cemetery of Glukhov town, many prominent personalities who made a great contribution to the culture, economy and other spheres of the town’s life are buried. Among them are the Jewish writer, publicist and teacher Lazar Davidovich Tsveyfel, Abram Isaakovich Rusakov - the grandfather of the outstanding Soviet painter and graphic artist Alexander Isaakovich Rusakov and many others.At the time of the end of this research, at least 30 gravestones, due to the historical and cultural significance of the persons buried under them, are of interest to researchers of regional history and can be used for various genealogical, local history and historical studies, as well as in the development and conduct of lecture and sexursion programs on the Jewish places of Glukhov town and specifically on the Jewish cemetery.
From the total number of surviving ancient gravestones, a group of monuments which are of interest were identified by one or by a set of criteria. Three types of criteria were taken into account: the value of an epitaph as a historical source or literary phenomenon; art value of carved decor; historical or cultural significance of buried. According to the results of the study, 76 gravestones were included in this group. The article provides a list of gravestones that can be fully considered as objects of cultural heritage and should take the appropriate place in the memorial protection activities of Ukraine.
Key words: Glukhov, Jewish cemetery, necropolis, tombstones, epitaphs, carved decor, ornaments, objects of cultural heritage.
Received by the editorial board: 28.03.2019
1. Genealogicheskiy portal «Evreyskie korni». Poisk po bazam dannykh [Genealogian site «Jewish roots». Databased search]. forum.j-roots.info. Retrieved from http://forum.j-roots.info/searchdb_pro_sto.php [in Russian].
2. Genealogicheskiy portal «Evreyskie korni». Evreyskoe kladbishche goroda Glukhova [Genealogian site «Jewish roots». The Jewish cemetery of Glukhov town]. forum.j-roots.info. Retrieved from http://j-roots.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=101&Itemid=101 [in Russian].
3. Genealogicheskiy portal «Evreyskie korni». Proekt «Kamennyy arkhiv» [Genealogian site«Jewish roots». Project «Stone archive»]. forum.j-roots.info. Retrieved from http://forum.j-roots.info/searchdb_form.php [in Russian].
4. Nazarova V. V. (2014). Istoriya i genealogiya glukhovskikh evreev v zametkakh Chernigovskikh gubernskikh vedomostey [History and genealogy of Glukhov Jews in the notes of Chernigov provincial journal]. Mozhaysk: OAO «Mozhayskiy poligraficheskiy kombinat» [in Russian].
5. Umanets F. (1879). Selo Ulanov [Village Ulanov]. Drevnyaya i novaya Rossiya. Ezhemesyachnyy istoricheskiy illyustrirovannyy sbornik [Ancient and new Russia. Monthly historical illustrated digest], 8, 286–305 [in Russian].
6. Chasnitskiy M. M. (2009). Glukhov. Evrei. Pamyat' zhiva... [Glukhov. Jews. The Memory is Alive]. Kyiv: Atopol. [in Russian].
7. Chasnitskiy M. M. (2011). Evrei. Glukhov i Sumshchina. Stranitsy istorii evreev Glukhovshchiny i Sumshchiny [Jews. Glukhov and Sumy Region. From the Jewish History]. Kyiv: Zoloti vorota [in Russian].