BIOGRAPHY OF THE KOSH OTAMAN
PETRO KALNYSHEVSKIY: REVEALED & UNKNOWN PAGES
Abstract: There are considered the most important regularities of the development of historical knowledge about the last kish ataman of Zaporoz’ka Sich P. Kalnyshevskiy, their general features and specific features within the different periods of study of this issue with an emphasis on the latest achievements. There is involved the most recent data, that was not a subject to historiographical analysis, and on the basis of which were conceptually redefined a number of evaluations, stereotypical statements and positions, that were dominant in historiography.
It was shown the state of Ukrainian historical science at the time of totalitarianism, when the national-conscious part of historians fell into the wheel of repressive and punitive measures of Soviet power, was arrested and repressed. The bolsheviks’ submission of historical research by political diktat, the transformation of historical science into its ideological servant, its centralization and nationalization led to the falsification, distortion and mythologization of the history of Ukraine, in particular, the Zaporozhian Cossacks, the kish ataman P. Kalnyshevskiy. Everything was done to destroy the national memory of the Ukrainian people. At this time, the Ukrainian Diaspora remained the defender of the national traditions of historiography.
A number of factual and analytical differences concerning the research of P. Kalnyshevsky’s multilateral activity have been complicated. The historiography of the subject is covered in two aspects: objectivism and personalism, revealing the important tendencies of their mutual influence and interdependence.
There were considered through the prism of ideological landmarks, moral and ethical principles, the most recent works, that were not yet a subject to historiographical analysis, their historiographical significance was clarified. The new information on the life path of P. Kalnyshevskіy was collected and published.
There are elucidated the views of Ukrainian and foreign scholars on the biography of P. Kalnyshevskiy as a component of the multifaceted activity of the Cossack elite. There are illustrated achievements of various generations of Ukrainian historiography, the uniting of the creative potential of historians of mainland Ukraine and the Ukrainian diaspora for the creation of the scientific history of Ukraine.
It is explored the interpretation of P. Kalnyshevsky’s economic policy in scientific literature. Modern scholars have proved, that it was during the time of kish ataman P. Kalnyshevskiy, that a new economic thinking was established, and a unique cultivating culture was formed. The young generation of Ukrainian historians is increasingly studying the priorities of foreign and domestic trade in New Sich, the customs system, commodity-money relations, etc. Researchers are convinced, that Zaporizhzhya turned into economically self-sufficient territory during the times of P. Kalnyshevskiy.
It is characterized the views of scientists on the military activity and the military skills of the kish ataman, his participation in the Russian-Turkish wars of the XVIII century. There are discovered the state and the leading tendencies of the study the charity activity of P. Kalnyshevskiy by historians through the prism of historiographical traditions and innovations. It is important the study of the impressive scales and geography of the charitable work of the Zaporozhian leader, the origin of his wealth and their use for charity. It is noted, that among the many-sided activities of P. Kalnyshevskiy the most investigated today is a philanthropic one. On the basis of existing works, insufficiently studied aspects are outlined, directions of future researches are determined.
Keywords: Ukrainian historiography, historiographical sources, historiographical analysis, national historical science, P. Kalnyshevskiy, kish ataman, Zaporoz’ka Sich, Zaporozhian Cossacks.
Received by the editorial board: 11.12.2019
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