THE HISTORICAL PAST OF UKRAINE IN MICHAL GRABOVSKY
Abstract: The article analyzes the scientific concepts of Mikhal Grabovsky – the ukrainian-polish author of the first half of the XIX . His works are generally deal with literary criticism and authorship. Grabovsky`s literary-critical essays are well studied by such polish and Ukrainian researchers as A. Bar, M. Bratska, A. Vasko, V. Gnatyuk, V. Yershov, M. Rollye, I. Rudenko and others. His creative heritage includes number of works, which were devoted to the Ukrainian past, especially to the problems of polish-ukrainian opposition in the XVII in Koliyivschina times. Grabovsky`s historical works were partly studied by Olena Yurovska in the article under the title: «Kulish and Grabovsky». She stressed the Grabovsky`s influence on the formation of historical position of P. Kulish, described their scientific relationships in historical and ethnographical field. The aim of this article is to analyze M. Grabovsky`s views on the history of Ukraine, especially on Cossacks, polish-ukrainian contacts, the real relationship between polish nobility and Ukrainian population during Koliyivschina in 1768, status of Ukrainian territories in structure of Russian Imperia. Such aspect have not been the subject of historiographical studies yet. The author applies methods of historiographical analysis and synthesis, uses the problem-chronological attitude to solve this problem and principles of objectivity and historicism.
M. Grabovsky historical essays of «About the Reasons of Mutual Antagonism of Polish and Ukrainians», polite literature about Koliyivschina («Koliszczyzna i stepy») were analysed. The special attention is paid to «The Polish Answer to Russian Publicists on the Problem of Lithuania and Western Gubernies», in which Grabovsky took a position of apologist of Ukrainian history against the Russian writers. In this brochure he was agree with the Ukrainian historian of M. Kostomarov`s position about the existence of two Russian nations and malorussian (Ukrainians) nation is differ from polish and velikorussian (Russian) and convicted of it was not the necessity to identify Ukrainians as Russians. M. Grabovsky thought about the reasons of rebellions in Ukraine. He described them in «Koliszczyzna i stepy» novel though thinking of the main character Zhulinsky, who confirmed the injustice and aggression in Ukraine, but they were not the specific feature of polish authority and did not form the system of slavery. The important attribute of low living standard and dissatisfaction were backwardness of trade, and lack of factories. M. Grabovsky stressed the special common consciousness of the Ukrainian population was the majority of them considered themselves as nobility. The analysis of his essays gives the base to agree with statement of K. Arabazhin – the specialist in literature, who called M. Grabovsky the personality of Renessance despite of his Pan-Slavism and cultural extension.
The article pays attention to M. Grabovsky`s archeographic activity. His essays about the Ukrainian past were published in polish issues of «Zrzódłа do dziejów polskich» and «Pamiętniki domowe».
The author concludes the M. Grabovsky`s histirocal and literary works have an important value to understanding of polish-ukrainian relations in the times of early modern. They remain relevant nowadays.
Key words: M. Grabovsky, the history of Ukraine, historical studies, cossacs, Koliyivschina, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Right-Bank Ukraine.
Received by the editorial board: 12.11.2019
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