Postgradute student of studying of the department of History and Culture of Ukraine and special historical disciplines State Higher Educational Establishment «Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi State Pedagogical University named after Hryhoriy Skovoroda».
POLISH MODEL OF THE TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES’ ASSOCIATION
AND FUNCTIONING PROCESS
Abstract. From the very beginning of its existence, the process of local self-government bodies’ formation in post-socialist countries is characterized by total control by central authorities. It is common that citizens in political-power relations are forced to play a secondary role in such systems, therefore they naturally tend to the European model of policy on the community level. Each of the post-socialist countries has chosen its own path of reforming the local self-government system. This article deals with the analysis of the Polish model of administrative-territorial reform, as Poland was one of the first countries in the socialist bloc that began reforming process radically denying the communist model of governance imposed by the Soviet Union. In addition, we analyze the Polish experience as Ukraine and Poland share common history and these countries have much common features in terms of economy and culture. Poland had the opportunity to critically analyze the experience of leading European countries while preparing their own administrative and territorial reform and, eventually, applied the best European practices in Poland. On the one hand, the main goal of the Polish government in this area was to establish effective work of local governments, which would consider the need of having a controlled vertical of executive power typical for a unitary state and, on the other hand, maximize the rights of local governments. It is a known fact that the Republic of Poland began with the reform of local government, particularly, abolished the two-steps system of territorial units (gminas and voivodships) and introduced a three-steps one instead (gmina – county – voivodship). The establishment of the Republic prepared a detailed set of legal documents for each level of the self-government hierarchy, which clearly regulated the scope of competence for each level. This model proved its effectiveness and has been used until now. The aim of this article is to identify mechanisms for reforming local governments in post-socialist countries based on the experience of Poland.
Key words: local self-government, territorial and administrative reform, decentralization, principle of subsidiarity, administrative unit, commune, county, voivodship.
Received by the editorial board: 13.11.2020
Baranovska T. M. (2016). Derzhavna polityka rozvytku terytorialnykh hromad v Ukraini: dys. na zdobuttia nauk. st. k. nauk z derzh. Uprav [State policy of territorial communities’ development in Ukraine: dis. for Candidate of Sciences in public administration]. Natsionalna akademiia derzhavnoho upravlinnia pry Prezydentovi Ukrainy. Kharkivskyi rehionalnyi instytut derzhavnoho upravlinnia [National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine. Kharkiv Regional Institute for Public Administration]. Kharkiv, P. 261 [in Ukrainian].
Boryslavska O. M., Zaverukha I. B. Shkolyk A. M. ta in. (2012). Detsentralizatsiia publichnoi vlady: dosvid yevropeiskykh krain ta perspektyvy Ukrainy [Decentralization of public power: the experience of European countries and prospects for Ukraine]. Tsentr polityko-pravovykh reform [Center for Political and Legal Reforms]. Kyiv, Moskalenko O. M., 212 p. [in Ukrainian].
Vorona P. V., Pukhtynskyi M. O., Vlasenko O. V. ta in. (2009). Zarubizhnyi dosvid orhanizatsii ta roboty mistsevoi vlady: monohrafiia [Foreign experience of local authorities organization and work: monograph]. Poltava, 280 p. [in Ukrainian].
Detsentralizatsiia: u pytanniakh ta vidpovidiakh. (2016.) [Decentralization: questions and answers]. Ukrainskyi instytut mizhnarodnoi osvity [Ukrainian Institute of International Education]. Kyiv, 19 p. [in Ukrainian].
Detsentralizatsiia: zapytannia-vidpovidi (pidhotovleno na osnovi zapytan, shcho nadkhodyly do HO «Instytut hromadianskoho suspilstva» 05.2015-04.2016). (2016). [Decentralization: questions and answers (prepared on the basis of questions received by the NGO ‘Civil Society Institute’ May, 2015-April,2016)] Instytut hromadianskoho suspilstva [Civil Society Institute]. Kyiv, 160 p. [in Ukrainian].
Zakon Respublyky Polsha «O mestnыkh orhanakh samoupravlenyia» (unyfytsyrovannыi tekst) [Law of the Republic of Poland ‘On local self-governing bodies’ (unified text)]. URL: http://municipalkg.narod.ru/ (data zvernennia 10.11.2020) [in Russian].
Kovbasiuk Yu. V., Vashchenko K. O., Tolkovanov V. V. ta in. (2014). Mistseve samovriaduvannia v Ukraini: suchasnyi stan ta osnovni napriamy modernizatsii: nauk. dop. [Local self-government in Ukraine: current state and main directions of modernization: scientific report]. Kyiv: NADU, 128 p. [in Ukrainian].
Konstytutsyia Respublyky Polsha ot 2 aprelia 1997 h. [Constitution of the Republic of Poland on April 2, 1997] URL: http://worldconstitutions.ru/ (data zvernennia 11.11.2020) [in Russian].
Krat Mykola, Sofii Oleksandr. (2016). Upravlinnia spromozhnymy terytorialnymy hromadamy. Dosvid Polshchi: informatsino-analitychne vydannia. [Management of affluent territorial communities. The experience of Poland: information and analytical edition]. Lviv, 90 p. [in Ukrainian].
Lopushynskyi I. P., Olenkova L. P. (2015). Reformuvannia mistsevoho samovriaduvannia yak osnova vprovadzhennia detsentralizatsiinykh modelei upravlinnia [Local self-governance reforming as a basis for implementing decentralization management models]. Teoriia ta praktyka derzhavnoho upravlinnia i mistsevoho samovriaduvannia [Theory and practice of public administration and local self-governance]. № 1. URL: http://www.irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/. (data zvernennia 12.11.2020) [in Ukrainian].
Mistseve samovriaduvannia v Ukraini ta sviti. Tsikavi fakty / zah. red. ta uporiad. I. L. Parasiuk, Yu. V. Teleshova [Local self-government in Ukraine and the world. Interesting facts / general. ed. I. L Parasiuk, Yu.V. Teleshova]. (2016). Kyiv: FOP Moskalenko O. M. 15 p. [in Ukrainian].
Paneiko Yurii. Teoretychni osnovy samovriaduvannia [Theoretical foundations of self-governance]. (2002). Lviv: Litopys, 196 p. [in Ukrainian].
Tkachuk A., Ahranoff R., Braun T. (1997). Mistseve samovriaduvannia: svitovyi ta ukrainskyi dosvid [Local self-governance: world’s and Ukrainian experience]. Kyiv: Zapovit, 186 p. [in Ukrainian].