Postgradute student of studying of the department of History and Culture of Ukraine and special historical disciplines State Higher Educational Establishment «Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi State Pedagogical University named after Hryhoriy Skovoroda».
ETHNIC TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE DONBASS IN THE
CONDITIONS OF DEPORTATION AND MIGRATION POLICY OF THE
SOVIET LEADERSHIP (1944-1949)
Abstract. The article examines the reasons for changes in the population of Donbas in 1944-1949 in the conditions of the Soviet resettlement policy. The main focus is on the analysis of the impact of repatriation and evacuation processes on the ethnic composition of the region in the first postwar years. The author clarifies the ratio and role of mechanical population growth, the impact of this process on the change of the ethnic component of the population of Donbas and the policy of formation there of labor resources during this period. For the first time, the number and ethnic composition of prisoners of war sent to rebuild the region's economy have been taken into account in the general dynamics of forced population movements. Based on foreign and domestic research, an attempt was made to calculate the movement of Japanese soldiers and officers to and from Donbas. The role of state planning in the policy of distribution of labor of the evacuated population and prisoners of war is clarified. Both general and special methods of historical research were used for the preparation of this study. In particular, comparative-historical, statistical and mathematical methods, which allowed analyzing the quantitative and qualitative composition of the population intended to evacuation and / or deportation. Archival documents (business correspondence between the Soviet authorities, certificates of statistical bodies of the regional and republican levels), as well as official orders and reports revealed the ambiguity of the demographic situation in the Donbas in the described period. Scientific research of the Soviet and modern periods has shown that a comprehensive assessment of the national composition of the population during evacuations and deportations in the first postwar years was not carried out. The analysis suggests that the ethnic component of the Soviet deportation and evacuation policy in the postwar period was not taken into account and requires further research that will fully trace the ethnic processes of the postwar period in the region. The source base of the research is normative legal acts and official documents of government bodies of this period, which are stored in Ukrainian and foreign archives.
Key words: Donbas, material and living conditions, migrations, deportation, post-war reconstruction, prisoners of war, USSR.
Received by the editorial board: 9.04.2021
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